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You can join me and my sister over on Sm.....(laughing).
Hey guys its Phil from Smilingardener.com. If you haven't checkout out my free online organic gardening course you can do that right on the homepage of Smilinggardener.com.
Today we're talking about home landscape design. If you're designing your own landscape one thing that a lot of people will do is just go to the garden center and buy all the plants that look nice and then get back home and start placing them and hope that it works out okay.
A much better process is to figure out your goals and do some designing first and a whole bunch of things are going to work out better if you do that. So I'm going to give you about 6 steps today. First very important step is to set some goals, and it doesn't have to be a big process you could do it in 5 or 10 minutes if you're in a rush, but there are 3 parts to this and the first part is the look and feel.
How you want it to feel, how you want the aesthetic of your garden to look like. So that could be certain flowers, certain plants, certain design features. Maybe if you want to have more of a relaxing garden you're going to use more curvy kind of plants and designs which is what I do in a lot of my gardens.
If you want more of an invigorating kind of party garden you might go more formal, straight edges, diamond shapes and you know, brighter colors - things like that. So you want to think about what kind of a garden you want to be in. I'm just working on a very small section of the garden for this little video today. So what I'm going to do here is put it what's called the three sisters guild.
I'm not going to talk about it too much today but it's basically a Native-American way of planting corn and beans and squash together. I'm going to put that in here and I'm going to make it a little more interesting with some other parts that maybe they would have used too like sunflowers and cleome - if I can find them and if I have the time. Maybe I'll talk about that a little more in another video.
But that's really my main goal here is putting together that aesthetic of that 3 sisters guild. The second part is usage - how you want to use your garden. So you may need a big area for playing sports or maybe you need a big area for having parties for dining outside, maybe a big area for actually gardening, potting and things like that.
And then you also need to think about paths through the garden because a lot of times, you know the paths don't work you can't get wheelbarrows in and out and things like that. So it's really the layout of the garden based on what your goals are and the goals are of everyone in the house.
Again, for me right here my main use I'm trying to put in this very cool kind of food garden. It's, you know it's a way to grow food and actually grow kind of a balanced diet all in one little space. The third part of this which isn't talked about as much in conventional garden design is the ecosystem. How can we really improve our ecosystem here and create a healthy environment.
For me, what that means is a lot of the things I've been talking about in other videos like composting, mulching, using microbial inoculants - all these are ways of really improving my soil and improving my ecosystem health. I'm also doing crop rotation by bringing the corn and squash in here because last year I had tomatoes in here and peppers so I'm doing a different plant family this year. So that's another thing.
And then I also at the very back of the bed I have some English Ivy that I really need to keep at bay because it can become kind of invasive. So those are just some, a few ecosystem goals. You might need to control erosion, or you might want to be capturing rainwater in a certain part of the garden or attracting beneficial insects, butterflies, pollinators.
You know we have many goals that we can think of to improve our ecosystem but it's a really important part of planning your garden. Step 2 is to actually draw the site and I'll show you because I've done it here. This one's obviously very simple which is good for this example. So you can see what we're looking at here, the house.
And here's my drawing. Here's the house, I have this little 240 square feet. parcel that we're looking at today. Off to the left is a Burning Bush standard which you can see over there. There's a Rose of Sharon which I've drawn right here and there are a few other shrubs here and the English Ivy is back here.
So what you want to do when you do this is use graph paper. And because this is such a small garden and I could make it so that one square is one sq. ft. but often one square would be 3 feet by 3 feet. So 9 square feet. In this case I didn't need that. So the key here is to draw everything to scale as much as possible. So I measure everything with a tape measurer or pacing off is a little bit easier way of doing it, but not quite as accurate.
And then that's going to become important when I'm choosing plants because then I know exactly how big a plant or approximately how big a plant is going to get - I can design appropriately.
Other than that it's basically you know, even if you just had a lawn here you just want to draw it to scale and anything there like the buildings, pathways, whatever is already there or plants, and utilities too you could put utilities on here if you have an irrigation line, a gas line, hydro wires over head.
So that's the site plan and when you're done with that you want to make some photocopies because we're going to be doing a few different things with it. Step 3 is to do a site analysis and that's when we look at the different energies that are coming onto your site and I guess again I'll just show you. This time I'll show you a different drawing.
This is the forest garden area that I ended up putting in last year. But before I put anything in I had to see what was going on. The main thing I often look at is the sun so I wanted to see where the full sun was in this area because I was going to plant fruit trees.
I saw down here was shady, up here was shady, and so that's a really you know, we really need to know where the full sun is and the part sun and the shade is because that's going to be really important for the health of our plants. Putting them in the right spot! I looked at the wind, I saw the wind was coming from up here - that's important because you don't want to put fragile things in a wind break and things like that.
It's really important to...or maybe you want to block the wind, or maybe you want to harness the wind. So we really want to know where the wind is coming from. We want to know where the slopes are. This was a slope down here which resulted in a seasonally wet area. So that was really important for how I ended up planting.
We want to know where the good views are. In this case it didn't matter that much to me but there might be a view you want to block or there might be a view you want to accentuate. So all those different kind of things that you might want to think about that are happening on your site this is where you want to put them on there and that's really going to inform the design.
Step 4 gets to be really fun and we call it functional diagrams. It's where to get to start dreaming about what you might want to do but there's really no pressure there's really a fast way to do it. And that's using bubble diagrams. So I'm going to show you yet another part of my garden because again, for a spot like this right here I don't really need to do too much bubble diagramming because it's just a little area.
But for something that's bigger you can do this and it's just a lot less work then trying to get too detailed too fast. So what I do is I look at my site plan that I already did first and my site analysis, I'm looking at those and I'm making decisions based off that. So I'm just roughing in things - where might I want a cistern?
Where obviously coming off the house I capture the rainwater, throw it into a cistern. Near the cistern I want things that need that water occasionally like herbs. So I have herbs in containers on my patio right outside my kitchen door. So that I can harvest them daily, because you use herbs often.
I have a dining area over here, herbs over here, and so you just starting to dream with kind of bubble diagrams and then you're not having to get freaked out about measuring and using rulers. Here's the full sun down here so I put a lot of food plants and flowers down there.
I drew in a retaining wall that I never built and I knew I wasn't going to build it anytime soon but that's where the slope is. Compost bin is uphill that means I'm always bringing the compost downhill when I need it. Here's a windscreen which means that this is a nice protected zone if I need it.
And I draw in the water source so I know these food plants here are going to be able to get water very easily. I ended up building a raised bed over here because I have to water that thing regularly. It's nice to have a water source right there, So the nice thing about doing it like this is that you can - and I know I'm flying through this guys, but I have to keep these videos short for youtube.
You can do a few different entirely different options when you're just doing bubble diagrams and you don't want to get too detailed. That's what I really like about that, just start dreaming. You don't have to draw plants when you're just doing these bubble diagrams because that gets way too detailed.
What you want to do is just say Hey, where might my compost pile go? Where...is this is place for a hedge? Is this a place for a pond? Is this a place for some annuals? Just, you know, the dining area? You don't have to grow an exact table yet just really think fast and it's really a fun way to do it.
The other thing about the bubble diagrams is that's really when you're...last time I was talking about permaculture design and so the bubble diagrams are when you're looking at all these elements like pond, greenhouse, compost pile and you're trying to get the integrations between them and kind of draw them out, figure out how they can related to each other and help each other out so bubble diagrams are great for that.
The fifth step and this may be optional for you is called a concept plan. And what this is, is where you're taking those bubble diagrams and you're starting to draw them a little more accurately. You're not necessarily going in and choosing every individual plant yet.
This is especially done by landscape designers when they want to present something to the client but they don't want to go in and draw dozens or hundreds of plants in detail until they've seen that the client really likes the overall concept. So you can see what I've done here. Again this was that other part of the garden. I'm drawing the beds in more detail.
I'm drawing things that I know, for example this dining table - I measured the size of it and I drew it. But I'm not drawing individual plants yet. This might be a case where some of the main plants could be drawn in and drawn to size. Or maybe, there's kind of a lot of ways to do it but you really don't have to draw in all the individual plants. Now you might not need to do this, you might go right to the last step which I'll talk about in a minute.
I actually like to do this in my vegetable garden because I like to work from this as my final plan. Because if I'm planting forty different kinds of vegetables throughout the garden I like to have a lot of flexibility. I just like to know in general where I'm thinking of putting things. So that's kind of what the concept plan is.
The sixth step, the last step is the planting plan and that's when you're designing exactly which plants you're going to be using and you're drawing them in to size. And what happens with a lot of gardens in they're planted way too densely because you buy these little plants that are one or two or three gallons and you plant them and the garden looks so sparse so things get planted too close together.
But what happens is these plants get a lot bigger. So what you do, on a planting plan is you draw them the full size they're going to get to, or at least the size they're going to get to in say ten years. It kind of depends people have different methods but really I like to draw them to the full size they're going to get to.
And what that means is I plant things far enough apart. So, in a vegetable garden I don't necessarily go to this step but in my orchard, my forest garden, I did because those are perennial plants they're going to stay there I want to make sure I give them enough space. So you can see I've drawn them the full circumference of how big they're going to get.
And I've obviously used everything that I've already been looking at - my bubble diagrams and my concept plan and I'm just drawing them in here and the nice thing then is when I go to the garden center I have a planting list - however you want to do it there's many ways you could do it - but I have a planting list.
So you can see from this particular garden that I put in last fall the sun is coming from the south down here shining like this. Down here I'm keeping some of these trees a little more dwarf and some of these fruit trees I'm letting to grow a little bit bigger, kind of how nature intended.
Down here where the wet area is, is where I planted my pears as I mentioned in the permaculture video because they can take more wet feet whereas up here my apple trees don't like the wet feet so much so that's where they are. And then here's a Stella Cherry, it's happy to be in this little bit more of a sheltered spot in my area. So many different...I can't get into too much detail in these videos because I want to keep it short but I try to think of many different things by the time you get to this point that are really going to make for a good design.
And I guess I'll briefly show you my little "design" for this garden here even though its not really a design so much as laying out the three sisters. The corn and the beans go where the "C"s are, the squash goes all in between them. So that's it for home landscape design.
If you have any questions at all ask them down below and I'll be sure to answer them. If you haven't signed up for my free online organic gardening course you can do that down below and you can also come and join me and my sister over on Facebook at Facebook.com/smilinggardener.
For many people, it’s getting to be time to figure out how to plan a landscape design for your organic garden.
I show you how in the video below - and I’d love to get your questions in the comments section at the bottom of this page.
Your landscape design plans might mean putting in new gardens entirely, or maybe just coming up with a planting plan for this year.
You could just go out, buy a bunch of plants, and then decide where to plant them when you get home.
But doing some good old fashioned proper landscaping design planning will result in a much better garden.
Here are 6-ish steps to getting it done...
I’m a big fan of organic liquid fertilizer.
But there’s also an important use for organic dry fertilizer.
I use liquid fertilizers mainly to provide small amounts of 80+ nutrients directly as a plant fertilizer, and also as a soil fertilizer.
Doing this plays a big part in helping me grow nutrient-dense food.
And yet some nutrients we need in the soil more than others, the big three in the organic world being calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K).
We need to have enough of them in the soil, but not too much.
(I know that npk fertilizer is stressed in the conventional world, and yes, nitrogen fertilizer is sometimes useful too, but it’s really not all that hard to get enough nitrogen - calcium is much more important to get right, so that’s my focus today).
The benefits we get when we move those three minerals in our soil towards the ideal amounts are many: healthier plants, fewer pests and weeds, better soil structure, etc.
That’s where dry fertilizer comes in...
Before we get into products that you can purchase to bring into the garden that are microbial inoculants I wanted to talk briefly about how we can culture our own micro-organisms.
The easiest example of that would be to go into a nearby forest and get a little bit of soil, bring it into the garden or the compost pile and what you're doing there is you're bringing in a different set of micro-organisms. Or if you went also to a, like a pond - a marshy area- that would be a different set of microbes, too and you can bring that to your compost pile or just kind of spread it on your garden.
And that's a great way to bring in a different set of microbes. Now we don't want to be bringing in wheelbarrows full of soil from other ecosystems, but just a little bit is a great idea. What I want to show you today is something else that I've done a few times just for fun mainly, is to culture my own lactobacillus which is a very important group of bacteria that do a lot of good things in the soil.
I don't tend to do it that often because they are in the product effective micro-organisms along with another group, another couple of groups of microbes that are really important, really beneficial when you get them altogether. Whereas this is just mainly the lactobacillus.
But, I like to do it because it's just neat to show you how you can culture your own microbes and beneficial ones at that. It will also be useful for - it's great for kids - but it's also good if you don't want to bring in too many external inputs but you want to do something beneficial for the garden this is useful. So, what I'll do here is I'll turn the camera down to the table here. And I'll show you.
Ok. So what I'm going to do here - it's a couple of weeks it takes - but there's not much. The first step is to take a small amount of rice. I don't know I have about a quarter cup of rice here and I'm going to rinse it in a little bit of water. And I'm just rinsing it, getting all that, you know when you rinse rice it gets to be a nice murky water and I guess that's kind of a going to be a substrate for microbes to grow on also maybe there will be some microbes in there, on the rice, too.
And then what I'm going to do is strain that into another container - into this container here - and I'm just going to put it into a maximum of fifty percent full. I'll do more about twenty-five percent full so really you want the container to be fifty to seventy-five percent empty.
Now what I'm going to do is loosely cover it up, make sure some air can get in there and leave it at room temperature for about a week and then we'll see what happens next. It's been a week and there's some yellow showing up in the water which is the rice bran and I want to kind of separate that out and just take the underlying part and that's what I'm going to do now. I may need to strain it out, I don't have the best strainer.
And what I'm going to be doing is I'm going to be adding 10 times as much milk, so I guess I should have said at the beginning if you're vegan you're not going to want to do this. And my family none of us drink milk anymore so I had to go borrow some but what you probably want to do is put it in a bigger container. What I'm going to do is just take not too much.
There that worked pretty well to strain that out. So what's going on now is we have various micro-organisms in here, some of them will be lactobacillus. When I add the milk it's going to - it's not going to feed the other ones - but it's going to feed primarily the lactobacillus.
I think you can use like skim milk, powdered milk things like that, but I think real milk is best. I'm guessing cows milk is best for this. So I'll stir that around a bit and then I'm going to leave this for another week or so.
Just again with a loose lid. Here we have the finished lactobacillus, it's only been a couple of days but it's pretty warm out so it happened really quickly and you can see what happens here is there's some white stuff floating on the top here, it kind of smells like cheese because that's lactic acid bacteria or the main micro-organisms in cheese and I don't really want that stuff I just want to throw that into the compost bin or something like that.
So what I'll do here is see if my strainer works, strain it out. Can you see underneath there's kind of a clear, yellow liquid? That's what I'm looking for. That's what I want to try and pour. I hardly even need the strainer. Nice. So now I just have that. And this is what I want.
So here's my lactobacillus and I can mix this week equal parts molasses, if I want to try and store it for a while and use it over a longer period of time. Obviously that's a lot of molasses. You don't have to use the full amount of molasses but a little bit's nice.
The other thing is you can put it into the fridge and that will help it store even better but the molasses just helps to give some sugar to the microbes if you want to store them. In terms of using it, what I would do is I would take my lactobacillus or my lactobacillus/molasses mixture and put it into twenty parts water when I'm ready to use it.
And you know, in the past what I've done is I've actually used that, that one to twenty ratio, but I think what you're supposed to do is take that and further dilute it one to sixty if I'm understanding it correctly. So really, you're diverting this about one to twelve-hundred parts water, or, I guess simple would be a little less than a teaspoon in a gallon of water.
And then you can spray it onto your organic matter, your compost pile, lactobacillus are great at getting into any anaerobic pockets and decomposing, getting to the ammonium and really decomposing it, controlling odors and things like that.
Also just onto your mulch, onto your plants. Lactic acid bacteria create enzymes and hormones and antibacterial substances and all kinds of good stuff, they're just really microbes. I'll be talking about them more when we get into EM because they're in effective micro-organisms, too.
Incidentally when we do mix this with water we want to do it with non-chlorinated water, nice clean water and I'll talk about that a lot when I get into compost tea because that's really important for brewing compost tea, too.
Hopefully you get a chance to do this just as a, if not just as an interesting experiment but also a very, very inexpensive way to put some of the most important micro-organisms out there into your garden.
A garden inoculant is really just anything we use to bring beneficial microbes into our organic gardens.
These microbes are often deficient for various reasons, but if we can get more of them back in there, they:
Plus there’s a whole list of other services they provide for plants and soil. Pretty cool...
I recently started selling my favorite organic liquid fertilizers, the same ones I use at home.
But I also like to make my own homemade liquid fertilizer when possible, and that’s what I’m excited to show you today.
Many of our best liquid fertilizers come from the ocean.
But there are ways you can approximate them, if like me, you don’t live near the ocean.
All of these can be used as a liquid lawn fertilizer, liquid plant fertilizer and liquid soil fertilizer.
You might even make enough for multiple applications (such as monthly or weekly).
For all of these homemade fertilizers, I suggest mixing with at least 10 parts water before you spray.
That will allow the fertilizer to cover more area, and will ensure we don’t burn our plants.
And it certainly doesn’t hurt to mix with even more water...
Phil: Welcome to my bedroom.
If you haven't picked up my free online organic gardening course you can do that right on the home page of Smilinggardener.com.
Today we're talking about starting plants from seeds. I like going right into something like this that has the trays and then you can grow the plants individually and then you pull them right out of here and put them into the garden.
So this has holes in it for drainage, then I can plop it into this guy which doesn't have holes in it, and that can capture the water - so that's how that works!
In terms of what kind of potting mix you use if you get a conventional potting mix it's usually going to have chemicals or fertilizers in it, or peat moss in it.
Now chemical fertilizers, I'm not really a big fan of for a number of reasons. The peat moss I'm not a huge fan of, it's something that basically is not that sustainable - we should be leaving those peat bogs where they are.
They have a really important role to play in our ecosystem. That being said, it can be beneficial in seed starting there's even research showing that if you don't have peat moss in there the process doesn't work quite as well, it still has always worked okay for me.
So I'm not really sure what to say about that. I don't tend to use peat moss, but a little bit maybe is okay. Can I leave it at that for now? Because I want to keep the video short.
What I recommend most people do is go and buy an organic potting mix, a seed starting mix or a potting mix that's OMRI listed - that means you know it's organic. It probably is going to have peat moss in there, it's going to have some compost in there.
Maybe a bit of lime, but that's something that's really easy to get going with. If you have a really nice big window you can just put your seeds right there.
They really need at least eight hour of sun a day, and what I always find is even if I have a nice big window it can be difficult to get enough sun because your overhang of your roof and the walls block some of that sun from coming in.
And what happens is the plants can start leaning to the sun and get kind of lanky. So what you have to do in that case is turn the plants regularly. That's kind of unnatural actually to have to be turned like that all the time but that's what you need to do.
On the other hand what I like to do is have a little bit of supplemental lighting. So here is a fluorescent light - it's in the six thousand calvin range so look for that when you're buying it.
I'll turn it on so you can see it, and what I do is I have it propped up about four to six inches above wherever my plants are. So occasionally I need to raise it up a bit.
And I just put it on top of whatever I have, today I have it on top of my book. That's usually where it kind of starts out at. And I just set it there like that.
What I do is I'll just leave this on for twelve to fourteen hours a day so then the plants are getting a lot more light and they can grow more efficiently, they're going to grow straight up instead of pointing out towards the window.
I still often put it by a window anyway, I don't know why I kind of like having that natural light there. Now the other thing we can do to really improve this process is to have a heat matt to provide some heat because a lot of these plants really want to have nice warm soil and you know, we want things to happen fairly quickly.
And so that's where a heat matt comes in - it plugs right into the wall, you set it right under the tray just like this, and you've got our heat!
Seeds can take a while to get germinating and get going and we really want to help them along with that process so what I do is I soak them for six to twelve hours. That's why I have them sitting in this bowl instead of in a seed packet.
So there's a couple of reasons we do this. One is just having them in water is going to get them nice and full of water of course they need water to get germinating and so it really helps them kind of swell up and get going, it really starts that germination process.
The other reason is the water allows me to coat them in some other things that I've talked about before. Liquid kelp which has lots of different minerals and natural growth hormones that really help that germination process along.
So it's a main one that is often used in soaking seeds. It should say on the label hopefully, but just half a teaspoon per five hundred milliliters of water. The same amount of sea minerals, which is full of minerals and other bioactive substances and you could use either of these or you could use both of them.
Now I'm starting something that I've never bothered starting before and that is corn, and that's kind of a weird thing to start because you can just put corn out there and it works fine. But I just kind of wanted to see what happens when you start corn so I thought I'm going to start corn today.
The next thing I do once I've poured that off is I take my mycorrizzhal fungi, because corn LOVES these mycorrizzhal fungi and I just sprinkle on the tiniest little bit over the seeds.
Ta Da! I have some potting mix in here now. And I actually have a good tip for you, after you get your potting mix in there then you can water in it before you've done your seeding and it's just a little bit easier to get things wet before hand I find.
When I do that, you know, I put my biostimulants and my EM in there as well, it's just a habit of mine whenever I'm watering something like this - I'm using those biostimulants.
Often when you do something like this it make sense to seed two seeds into each spot and then what happens is when they come up you can basically cut out the weakest seedling that means you're always selecting for a stronger seedling.
So in this case since I'm planting corn and since they're so big and since I know they're going to germinate pretty well, or I HOPE they're going to germinate pretty well I'm only going to plant one.
Do you guys think it's kind of weird to start corn from seed? I think it's kind of weird to start corn from seed, but it's also really fun to try stuff like this. Who knows what will happen??
Here's how we do it...go like that...and just make sure it's covered! Some seeds will come up in a few days, some will take a couple of weeks. A lot of the vegetable seeds we do will take less than a week.
You want to keep it moist in there and until they've germinated an easy way to do that without really aggravating the seeds with the watering can is to use a spray bottle.
Once I'm done seeding I'll put this on top to keep the moisture in there, and then once those have germinated and come up I'm going to want to take that off or at least remove it partly to get some more air circulation going on in there.
Then eventually I'll take it right off. Through the magic of time travel we now have corn! It's actually been about a week and things are looking really good and there's only problem is that I'm heading out of town tomorrow for three weeks, so I have to plant this corn today!
Ideally what I would want to do is let in be in here for probably another week or so to establish a stronger root system, but I can't do that so we'll see how well it works but at least we have a nice example here of starting from seed.
If you have any questions about starting plans from seeds you can ask them down below and I will answer. If you haven't signed up for my free online organic gardening course you can do that down below, you can also join me and my sister, haley over on Facebook.com/smilinggardener
Note: I now sell the organic fertilizers and microbial inoculants mentioned in this post. You can read more about that here.
You can get the jump on spring by starting plants from seeds.
Some plants need this, especially heat-loving plants like tomatoes, eggplants, and peppers.
A few others, such as carrots, really dislike being transplanted, so it’s best to direct seed them in the garden.
For the rest, it’s up to you whether you’d like to trying starting seeds indoors.
This is what my organic garden looks like today.
Not quite ready to start planting yet, haha, but I’m gearing up for spring.
I’ve been making sure I have my seeds and organic fertilizers and microbial inoculants all ready to rock when the soil warms up.
(Speaking of which, I’ll have an exciting new announcement at the bottom of this post.)
Time for an update!
I'm super excited!
As I’ve mentioned before, I don’t post so much here come fall and winter.
That's because most people aren’t really thinking much about gardening anymore.
And that’s okay by me because it gives me time to get into other stuff.
I can't begin to tell you how excited I am about this new project I’ve been working on.
I explain it in the video to the right, and then here's the link...
Phil: Check, check, check, one two. Check, check, check, one two.
Hey guys it's Phil from Smilinggardener.com. If you haven't checkout out my free online organic gardening course you can do that right on the homepage of Smilinggardener.com
Today we're talking about permaculture garden design. What conventional garden design often focuses on is the aesthetic of the garden and the functionality of the garden so just where things go and how the garden looks.
Which is fine for most people especially if you're a non-gardener you just want to have a tree that looks nice or a plant that looks nice. Like, I have a Redbud in the background here. It's not the best specimen which is why I actually took it and planted it.v
If the redbuds are in flower, people come out they want to buy that tree because they just want something that looks nice. That's entirely fine and that's a lot of what gardening is, just making something that looks nice.
What we're talking about today is making an ecological approach to garden design where of course we want it to look nice, we want it to work well, but we also want to look at nature and we want to think about it as a integrative kind of system where we're trying to improve biodiversity and clean up the soil and filter water, do a bunch of things that are just improving the health of our little space here.
And not only because we want to be good to the planet, because we want to have a garden that works really well and that doesn't always require our inputs that takes care of itself.
And so that's what we're getting into today with this permaculture design. Permaculture really got started or at least the term was coined in the 1970s and it was the combination of permanent and agriculture. So permanent is really talking about sustainability and something that can take care of itself sustainably and then agriculture is a lot about growing food.
The principles in permaculture are going to look different in every situation. Sometimes there's a probably that I see in permaculture is where solutions that have maybe worked elsewhere are imposed into our garden because we think we need them.
So an herb spiral is a way to grow a bunch of herbs in a small area and it's kind of a cool thing in the right situation but now a lot of people think they need an herb spiral because it's a permaculture thing, but with permaculture we really want to focus on the design, on the strategy and on thinking about the principles.
So, the principle is really trying to work with nature instead of trying to conquer nature we're trying to use the energies that are coming on our site, and trying to manipulate them just in such a way that it can help do some of the work for us.
A big thing with permaculture that we're trying to do is to observe and interact with our landscape. If we can somehow spend a few seasons looking at our landscape and observing it we can learn a lot and these are fairly common sense things.
It doesn't have to be difficult if I just look at my forest garden, this very young forest garden I'm putting in behind me, basically kind of a holistic orchard, I noticed observing, that there's a wet area down there seasonally during the spring and sometimes in the winter and so that's where I put - you can maybe see the white blossoms back there - my pear trees, my pear trees can take a little bit moisture whereas my apple trees aren't into that so I have an apple tree right here and another one off camera here, they're up on a high spot.
So that's pretty common sense but it's just things like that. Maybe you can see behind my redbud which has the nice purple flowers right now, there's a cherry tree.
It's kind of right behind there, but it's a little bit marginal in this area and so I have in the sheltered part of the garden where it's protected from wind it's kind of nice and warm in there, so it's just a fragile tree and that's going to help with that.
So it's really just common sense all the time but it gives us a lot of clues as to how we can work with the landscape and it really can minimize our labor and the inputs we need to bring in and then the problems we encounter if we do this kind of working with the energies and all the things that are going on in our site.
So in nature nothing is lost and that's what we're trying to mimic in our landscapes, too. If we can look at all of the elements in our landscape and figure out how we can provide for them then we can do a lot of good.
And what I mean by elements are things like fruit trees like an apple tree or a veggie garden or my compost pile or a pond or a greenhouse or any kind of major part of the garden. That's an element and that element needs some things in order to be optimal and that element can give a lot of things to us, too, if we can learn how to use them.
So that could be so many different things it can mean that under my fruit trees I'm trying to plant herbs and other beneficial plants that are going to help that fruit tree and we call that guilding a fruit tree, we call that a guild.
It could be that I put my compost bin somewhere where I can take the heat from that compost and do something with that heat - maybe it helps to heat a greenhouse - or maybe on the other hand maybe the greenhouse...if I put the compost bin in the greenhouse maybe the greenhouse helps to keep the compost bin warm throughout the winter.
So what we want to do is just keep looking at all these elements and on and on and on with the greenhouse I should be capturing water off that greenhouse maybe down in some plants that need a lot of water.
And so on and on we try to think about all these integrations. So what you really want to do is think about all the things you need in your garden all the products you want to get from it, all the things you need and also list all the major elements.
So fruit trees, greenhouses, all the things I've listed...compost...and think about how those things can all integrate with each other and provide for each other.
[Phil's mom shouting] Hey Phil, how's it going?
Phil: Great, just filming!
This was just a brief introduction to permaculture today what it means is observing your site, working with nature, trying to learn from nature. How can we mimic nature in our garden so that our garden takes care of itself? So we don't have to do so much work and spend so much money and then we can go and start and permaculture somewhere else.
If you have any questions for me ask them down below and I will answer them. If you haven't signed up for my free online organic gardening course you can do that down below. You can join me over on Facebook with my sister at Facebook.com/smilinggardener.
Before we even get to these permaculture principles today, it’s a good idea to take some time to choose your goals.
You may want fresh, healthy food, a space to relax and be inspired, impressive flowers to brighten up the street, a play zone for kids – the potential benefits are as diverse as people.
Conventional landscape design tends to look at gardens mostly in terms of aesthetics (e.g. bright fall color) and function (e.g. a privacy screen).
But this approach often doesn’t do a great job of designing the garden as a living ecosystem.
Phil: [singing] Oh when the sun beats down oh on the...something, something...ya....
Hey guys it's Phil from Smilinggardener.com if you haven't picked up my free online organic gardening course you can do that right on the homepage of Smilinggardener.com.
Today I'm talking about soil inoculants. Using a soil inoculant might seem kind of strange so I want to start with why you might want to do it. Now I talk about my two favorites are compost tea and effective micro-organisms.
I talk about them elsewhere and they're good soil inoculants but I primarily think of them as plant inoculants. Like a foliar feed that you spray onto your plants. Today I want to talk about soil inoculants.
The reason your soil may be lacking in biological diversity is just some of the things we've done over the years to it. It could be tilling, or past chemical fertilizer use, or pesticide use, or general landscaping practices.
Or it could be just the generally toxic environment we live in with air pollution and water pollution. Some of these things that make their way into your soil. Today I'm going to introduce you to two of my favorite soil microbial and the first is mycorrhizal fungi.
And I remember when I was in the amazon jungle making some videos for you I was talking briefly about the fungi and how when we're standing in a jungle all of the trees, or most of the trees, are going to be connected but this network of fungi underground.
It's the same in our vegetable garden. And what these guys do is they effectively extend the root system of some of our plants so that they're bringing up nutrients and water, far from in the soil up to the plants and they're protecting the plants from plant predators.
And then the plants are giving them carbohydrates and other food in return, so it's this bartering system and this real cooperation that goes on. And not only that but then all the plants are connected through the same fungal network plants share nutrients and other products and even information.
What I could do to get this fungi is go into a forest and dig up a little soil and then put that soil wherever I want the fungi to be and that can work okay but what I prefer to do is to buy an inoculant online you can even get them on amazon.com or other places online or in some garden centers and that way I know exactly what I'm getting, I know I'm getting the right fungi for my needs.
And so I'm going to show you what this fungi looks like, it's kind of windy out so I hope it doesn't all blow. There it is, this one is really micronized into a powder form and it will be on some kind of a carrier like humates or rock dust or something like that.
And then this is nice because I can really get it down right around the seed or the plant roots because you don't want to apply this to the leaves - there's no benefit to that - this relationship occurs at the root level. So that's why the best time to apply it is when you're seeding or when you're planting or when you're growing.
Even in the nursery! If the nursery applied it that way it'd be great, too. So what I'm going to do - I'll show you - here's a tomato plant. And all I need to do is just take a tiny bit of this fungi, this is plenty, all I need really is half a teaspoon or less for this.
And just put it on the roots, I don't have to get all the roots even if I just do one side that's probably fine - and that way that relationship can happen now.
Next I'm onto legume inoculants. So legumes are peas and beans and clover and vetch and these are really important plants in the garden because they partner up, we call them nitrogen-fixing plants, but really what they do is they partner up with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
So they help these bacteria create these little homes on their roots, and then the bacteria can go taking nitrogen out of the air, and turning it into a form that plants can use. And that process is the basis for other other life on earth really because it's these bacteria that get the nitrogen that allow us and animals and plants to build proteins and amino acids, enzymes things like that.
So a really important process. If your legumes can't find the perfect bacteria in the soil to work with they'll try to work with other bacteria and if they can find some kind of nitrogen bacteria they can make it work okay, but it's not going to be optimal.
Now you may just be thinking, well, maybe my beans and peas won't be that great - it's just one crop it won't be that big a deal, but to me it's a big deal because just because of the importance of legumes in improving the soil in our garden.
It's especially a big deal because in every fall I like to seed a cover crop that includes legumes, so I really want them to have their perfect nitrogen-fixing bacteria partners at that point.
And so here I have some black beans as you can see and then some pole beans that are more beige. And what I can do with this inoculant - you can buy an inoculant again in a garden center or online especially online it's easy to find.
You can get it in liquid or more of a dry form. I have the dry form here and it's...there it is...and I just rub it on to all of my seeds at the same time and that's the fastest way to do it. If I were applying a mycorrhizzal inoculant to these seeds I'd do the same thing just sprinkle it right on there and now I have the inoculant on there and I can plant these.
So those are my favorite two soil inoculants: mycorrhizzal fungi and a legume inoculant. There are others that are becoming more popular like trichoderma fungi and there are other nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live freely in the soil not on plant roots and they're interesting but these are still the tried and true ones, so these are the ones I always recommend starting with.
If you have any questions about soil inoculants ask them down below and I'll answer them. If you haven't signed up for my free online organic gardening course you can do that down below. And if you haven't joined me and my sister over on Facebook you can do that at Facebook.com/holy-cow-life's-so-awesome-and-I-just-love-gardening....dot...net.
Using a soil inoculant may seem kind of unnatural, so let’s start with why it might be a good idea.
The most important life forms in your garden are too small to see.
Microbes cover every soil surface and even inhabit the insides of all larger organisms.
They have a dramatic effect on plant health and nutrition, as well as our own.
In most gardens, the microbiome has been thrown out of balance by things like tilling, chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
And also the generally toxic environment we live in with pollution, antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals in our air and fresh water.
I don’t usually create many videos and articles once summer rolls around.
That's because you guys seem to stop tuning in as much this time of year and I often get into other projects of mine as well.
Of course I don’t stop gardening, but that doesn’t take much work once you have a garden that’s functioning pretty well, especially when you're focusing on perennial plants...
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